Answered by Ustadh Tabraze Azam
Question: Is masjid al-Aqsa the one with the dark silver/black dome or is it the Dome of the Rock? I would like clarity on the difference between these two mosques and the individual significance of each. As of now, the understanding that I have is that masjid al-Aqsa is where the Prophet (saws) prayed with the other Prophets and then Dome of the Rock is from where he ascended during Isra wal Miraj. Is that correct or incorrect?
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
I pray that you are well, insha’Allah.
Masjid al-Aqsa is the building with a dark grey dome. The Dome of the Rock is the building with a gold colored dome.
What you have mentioned is correct. Masjid al-Aqsa is where the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) led the other Prophets (Allah bless them and give them all peace) in prayer during the night journey and ascent (isra wa al-mi`raj). The Dome of the Rock is the place from where he (Allah bless him and give him peace) ascended unto the heavens.
There is much virtue in prayer at Masjid al-Aqsa as is apparent from the narrations (hadiths) on it. It is reported with a sound chain of transmission that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “The prayer prayed in the Sacred Mosque (Masjid al-Haram) is akin to one hundred thousand prayers, and the prayer in my mosque is akin to one thousand prayers and the prayer in Jerusalem is akin to five hundred prayers.” [Musnad Bazzar]
Please see: Advice to Western Muslims on Visiting Jerusalem  The Reward of Prayer in Masjid al-Aqsa
And Allah alone gives success.
Checked & Approved by Faraz Rabbani